In India, pig production has an important role to serve as an effective instrument of social change in weaker sections of the rural community. The pigs are probably the most accommodative among animals. They can be managed in many different ways and sold off at different stages of growth. Pigs can be reared economically with minimum expenditure on building and equipment. Pig husbandry is a profitable occupation, especially for small and marginal farmers. It requires minimum capital investment and labour. The return on the investment is quick and high. Within a very short period, piglings achieve marketable maturity. India has about 10 million pigs and swine farmiing in India contributes about 6.7% of the total meat production in the country.
The type of pigs which are found throughout the country may be divided into four types, viz. wild pigs, domesticated or indigenous pigs, exotic breeds of pigs, and upgraded stock of pigs such as Large-White Yorkshire, Middle-White Yorkshire, Landrace, etc. The indigenous (desi) pig has been the basis of pig production all these years. They are small in size and the small-sized animals do not have any definite characteristics. They grow slowly, produce small litters and the meat type is of inferior quality. However, improved breeds are now being used for grading up the indigenous population so that the crossbred pigs would, increasingly form the basis for pig production in rural areas.
In India, pig fanning is a subsidiary occupation, especially among the socio-economically poor people. Of all the meat-producing animals, the pig has an important role because of the short generation interval, efficiency of feed conversion, faster growth rate, and higher dressing percentage. Five sows and one boar can produce 80 to 100 young ones in a year that can be sold when they weigh around 65 kg. The dressing percentage in pigs is 65 to 70 which means more meat is produced per animal.
The most suitable strategy for successful commercial pig production is to choose areas near population centers or cities from where improved production techniques and better breeding stock can be gradually disseminated to the pig farmers living in remote rural areas. The pig should be procured from the farmers after attaining the weight between 60 and 70kg by the cooperative or government agencies and arrangements should be made for profitable marketing in population centers or cities, where there is a greater demand for pork. The pig rearers should be paid adequately. We can use print ads, stickers, and even social media to spread the message of the high-quality, most hygienic pork available in town.
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