Project report for Biofloc Fish farming

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Fish is the cheapest and most easily digestible animal protein and was obtained from natural sources from time immemorial for consumption by human beings. However, due to overexploitation and pollution, the availability of fish in natural waters has declined forcing scientists to adopt various methods to increase its production. Fish farming in controlled or under artificial conditions has become an easier way of increasing fish production and its availability for consumption.

The aquaculture industry is increasing rapidly at a rate of 9% per year since the 1970s. But land costs and strong dependence on fishmeal and fish oil is the main impediment for the expansion of aquaculture. To prepare commercial feed for aquaculture, such ingredients are one of the prime constituents. About 50% of expenditure for aquaculture production derives from feed costs, which is predominant due to the cost of protein components in commercial diets. 

The environmentally congenial and cost-effective aquaculture system called “Biofloc Technology (BFT)” is considered an efficient alternative system since nutrients could be continuously recycled and reused. The technologies are supportive for the sustainability of aquaculture, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable. The interest of people towards the closed aquaculture systems is increasing because of having biosecurity, environmental & marketing advantages over conventional extensive and semi-intensive systems. The sustainable approach of such a system is based on the growth of periphyton in the culture medium, benefited by the minimum or zero water exchange. The heat and fluctuation of temperature are prevented by maintaining a minimum water exchange. Biofloc technology has two most important roles: 
1) Maintenance of water quality which amplifies the natural productivity.

2) Enhancing culture feasibility by nutrition and reducing feed conversion ratio and feed costs. This natural productivity plays a vital role in recycling nutrients and maintaining water quality.

Product / Services & process

This Profitable Method of Fish Farming is practiced in a tank that comes in various sizes. Biofloc technology converts unused feed and aqua animal feces into food in a culture system while exposed to sunlight creating a protein-rich live feed. By converting excess into food again, the cost of feeding comes down. Heterotrophic bacteria are the main component of Biofloc. It reduces the Ammonia and Nitrite produced by fish feeding. These Heterotrophic bacteria consume Ammonia converting it into protein. This can be consumed by fish for growth. It works as an actual feed for the fishes. Its nutritional values are also good. 

This Profitable Method of Fish Farming or Biofloc Farming cuts all the major costs so that the savings can be really big. Several factors such as Huge operational costs, cost of vast lands, high costs of feeding, disposal, and discharge of waste sludge will not be problems when you opt for this method. In Aquaculture, the major cost is due to feeding ingredients for fishes. When fishes are fed with high protein diets, approximately 70% of it is discharged as waste in surrounding culture water in the form of nitrogen. With biofloc, we can recycle this waste into feed again reducing the expense of high protein feeds. Biofloc systems also reduce the spread of pathogens while also improving fish health.

Market potential & Strategy

India is geographically poised to be the world leader in the fisheries sector. Being the biggest peninsula in the world, with its vast coastline of 7,517 km and EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) of 200 nautical miles, the network of lakes, rivers, and numerous other inland water bodies. It can easily surpass any other nation in fish production. 
A vast population, especially the young generation, in rural India can be deployed in the fishing industries. The present market demand globally and also in India is for processed seafood. Once the source has been taken care of, processing and value addition can be carried out in MSME units. Moreover due to the continuous ban on fishing in the sea and the lack of visibility and provision for fishing for sea fish due to climatical changes may cause the scarcity of the sea fish. Biofloc fishes can be an alternative to sea fish.  

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